A Direct Black Hole

How did supermassive black holes form in the early epochs of the universe? More importantly, how did they have enough time to grow as large as they did? The answer requires a very different universe.  And back then, conditions were much different than they are now.  There was a lot of gas, little dust, no stars, and a plethora of dark matter. Astronomers have spent decades observing early quasars, massive active galaxies powered by huge black holes feeding on surrounding gas.  But these galaxies are seen so early in the universe’s history, one starts to wonder how a black hole finds sufficient...

Motivation Monday: The Detriment of Perfectionism

I am a perfectionist.  This means that although I work very hard on projects to put my best work forward, I also have a tendency to hold my own work to an insanely high standard.  It also means that when I see the incredible successes of others, I beat myself down for what I feel I haven’t yet accomplished.  It often leads to stress because I can almost never reach my own high standards, and depression occasionally follows because they can’t be met.  I have curbed these tendencies over the years, by understanding exactly what I need to feel accomplished,...