The Beginnings of Galaxy Clusters: Proto-Clusters Finally Seen!

The deeper we peer through the cosmos, the more we are looking into the distant past.  Light from other galaxies takes millions of years to reach us, and so when that light has finally arrived at Earth, it is millions of years old, a snapshot in time of the distant galaxy.  The furthest we can see is so far back in the history of the universe, that galaxies haven’t even formed yet.  As we look at the large-scale structure of the Universe, we see it filled with a cosmic web of galaxy clusters, containing tens of thousands of galaxies each....

Motivation Monday: The Secret of Working with Others

In the development of humanity, we naturally evolved to fear the unknown, to be wary of new people, those who were outside of our own stone age ‘tribe.’  But at the time, it was rare for someone new to appear, and if they did, it was probably with hostility as their intent. In today’s world, human being have naturally found themselves surrounded by new people on a daily basis.  Even from a young age, in school, we meet more new people than our ancestors would have in their entire lives.  I remember that through four years of high school, I...